The tinnitus, also known as tinnitus (when the sound is high) and tinnitus (when sound is serious), is a perception of sound similar to a ringing in the ears in the absence of a cause or source external to produce it, which can appear acutely or chronically, causing discomfort and affecting the quality of life of people who suffer from it. It can be accompanied by other symptoms such as decreased auditory perception, a feeling of a blocked ear, vertigo, insomnia and depression.
The tinnitus in the ear can be seen in one or both ears, as a beep in the ear or an external and distant hum, which in turn can be continuous or intermittent.
The presence of a ringing in the ear may be the expression of an underlying disease; so you should see a doctor to determine its cause.
Causes of ringing in the ears
Ringing in the ears can have different causes that trigger it, the main ones are listed below:
1. Vascular causes:
C hen an artery that carries oxygen to the ear is obstructed due to the presence of cholesterol plaque or clot, a turbulent blood flow occurs within the blood vessel and a similar sound azumbido occurs. This condition occurs in elderly and hypertensive people.
2. Alterations inside the ear:
A ringing in the ear can be the result of a simple plug of wax inside the external auditory canal, but it can also be due to spasms of the muscles in the middle ear associated with a local injury such as acute otitis.
The ringing in the ear can also be caused by an injury to the eustachian tube (structure within the ear), which can be affected by a decrease significant weight or radiation in the case of radiotherapy.
3. Neurological causes:
The tinnitus may be due to the involvement of nerves of the ear by a demyelinating disease such as multiple sclerosis or systemic disease such as diabetes mellitus.
4. Alterations in bone and muscle structures:
They occur due to the aging and immobility of the ossicle chain inside the ear, a phenomenon known as otosclerosis.
Also the affection of the temporo-mandibular joint or muscular contractures on the cervical spine can generate ringing in the ears.
· Central nervous system tumors: Any space-occupying lesion that compresses the auditory nerve can cause tinnitus.
· Secondary to medications: the excessive use of salicylates, diuretics such as bumetanide and furosemide, and antibiotics such as amikacin and vancomycin can produce toxicity on the ear.
If you present a ringing in the ears that persists for more than 48 hours, you should go to the ENT doctor to perform a physical examination that includes otoscopy and determine the exact cause of this discomfort, it could also indicate the performance of an audiometry (study that measures hearing ability).
Sometimes, an imaging study such as tomography or nuclear magnetic resonance with angiographic effect is necessary to rule out other more severe injuries.
Treatment of ringing in the ear
The treatment of this condition will depend on the cause that produces it. For many patients, having a ringing in the ear chronically alters their quality of life, impacting their daily activities including sleep, so treatment is not only focused on completely curing the disease but also alleviating the associated symptoms and improving living conditions of the patient.
If the affectation is in the ear, for example: a cerumen plug, the doctor can remove it by aspiration and if there is an infection in the ear, the doctor will indicate antibiotic treatment and ear drops if necessary.
If there is a vascular lesion, depending on its location, statins and anticoagulants are indicated or a surgical procedure will be performed to correct it.
If it is a muscle contracture in muscles near the ear, analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs can be used to relieve symptoms, and when there are muscle spasms inside the ear, local botulinum toxin therapy is used.
On the other hand, if it is a metabolic disorder such as diabetes mellitus, it must be compensated with oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. If it is a demyelinating pathology such as multiple sclerosis, steroids should be started.
In the case of otosclerosis (degeneration of the ear secondary to age), devices can be used to improve hearing and reduce the probability of ringing in the ears, being indicated in some cases cochlear transplantation.
In people who already have sleep disorders, the use of sleep medications prescribed by the doctor is recommended, as well as the use of antidepressants in people who have anxiety and depression disorders associated with the constant appearance of ringing in the ears.
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